A rhizome is a modified stem that grows horizontally below the soil surface. Rhizomes are full of starches and proteins, and as they grow, they are able to sprout new shoots that feed off this food source. This allows the plant to essentially “clone” itself, spreading from its original seedling to occupy more space.
In coastal marsh restoration, propagating rhizmonious species is a useful tool. At many of our restoration sites around the San Francisco Bay, the shoreline is infested with invasive plants. These non-native species thrive on the disturbed soils of bay fill and get a head start on our California native plants. In order to successfully restore a site, it’s a tough battle between these invasives and the native plants we grow. Through our community based restoration programs, volunteers are able to pull these invasive species as they sprout, but that is only half the battle.
The ultimate goal is for the native plants to become fully established so they can keep invasive plants from growing themselves. This is where the rhizomes come in. Being able to spread vegetatively through these underground stems, the native plants such as Marsh Baccharis, Creeping Wild Rye, Western Goldenrod, and California Bee Plant, can spread at a faster rate in addition to producing seed. As these rhizomes spread they compete with invasive seedlings for water and nutrients from the soil, as well as space and access to sunlight. It’s amazing to watch these native plants spread from their original seedlings to form dense stands of vegetation, the perfect cover and habitat for many species living in and adjacent to the marsh.
Not only are rhizomes amazing from a restoration viewpoint, we also rely on them for several tasty foods. Hops used for brewing and flavoring beer also grow from rhizomes. Asparagus sprout from these modified stems as well, and the ginger root used in cooking and making teas is actually a rhizome itself!
Come see how cool rhizomes are yourself by transplanting Creeping Wild Rye rhizomes at one of our public nursery programs held every 1st Wednesday of the month, or help in the ongoing battle against the invasives at one of our Saturday public programs in the field! Sign up to volunteer online.